Sunday, December 1, 2019

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example

Rhetorical Analysis Paper Cole Richardson Professor Bedwell English 1321 10 11 October 2011 Rhetorical Analysis Essay 2 We Do Abortions Here: A Nurse’s Story, written by Sallie Tisdale, was first published in 1990 by October’s edition of Harper’s Magazine. Tisdale was motivated to write this article because she is an American nurse and essayist. She is a writer on health and medical issues and anything in between. The purpose of this article is to inform the readers on how often abortion is called upon, along with the thoughts of these young women and children having them done. I would say the audience of this article is a well-educated, middle class people, because some of the vocabulary can be a little difficult at times. We Do Abortions Here: A Nurse’s Story, by Sallie Tisdale, makes both an effective, and ineffective argument. Tisdale makes her article effective because she uses impelling illustrations to explain how rapid abortions are done, but she also explains in great detail how painful the process is and what it is like. Although she uses great illustrations her argument is ineffective because her writing and thoughts are unclear, therefore making the way she thinks confusing. We will write a custom essay sample on Rhetorical Analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Rhetorical Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Rhetorical Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer But the main reason Tisdale’s article is ineffective is because she is writing against abortion, yet works as a nurse who helps physicians do abortions, it does not make sense to me. Tisdale feels that abortion is wrong, happens too periodically, and is taken advantage of. She works in a hospital as a nurse that helps physicians during the procedure. Her work consists of completing sound wave tests, also known as ultrasounds, and she helps to sooth patients’ state of mind. In her field of work her and her co-workers are all seen as impure because it is known as dirty work to some. Tisdale sees many abortions done daily, along with numerous done weekly, numbers over the hundreds. From all different types of women, some in their teens with multiple years to come, others in their twenties or thirties having their first abortion, some having their fourth or fifth. But each person she sees is there for the same reason as the rest. They all made a choice to have unprotected sex or in some cases unfortunately some were forced beyond will, and now they cannot handle the consequences. This is what Tisdale sees every day and although she tries her hardest not to let her emotions cry out for what is wrong, it is her job. Tisdale states, â€Å"abortion is so routine that one expects it to be like a manicure: quick, cheap, and painless† (750). This quote is effective to the story because it is compares abortion to a manicure, which are of no relation, but for Tisdale this quote can open the eyes of the reader’s and show them how much abortion is taken advantage of. Manicures and pedicures are done every day all over the world, and comparing abortions to manicures can help the reader understand how many abortions are done not only daily but also just in general. In fact, abortions are repeated on a daily basis, without knowing the exact number Tisdale states, â€Å"we do over a hundred abortions a week† (750). Assuming that they are closed on the weekends, that is anywhere from twenty to possibly even thirty a day. If you sit back and think about it, twenty to thirty are done per day, and one hundred to one hundred-fifty are done per week, and we do know that there are fifty two weeks in a year. So do the math, if there are approximately one hundred to one hundred-fifty abortions per week with fifty two weeks in a year that is anywhere from 5,200 to 7,800 dying babies a year, but again we do not know for sure. Either way they are humans, living being created by God, and it is sickening to think about how many of them are being murdered. Tisdale’s details about the actual aborting process are very vivid and detailed about how horrific, painful, and sickening the procedure is. Abortions can be done to all types of women from children, to teens, even to moms in their thirties who are anywhere from one month pregnant to six months pregnant, but after that it is too late to have an abortion and of course the longer you wait, the more painful it is for the women. For instance a woman who is a month in a half pregnant would just sit back and let â€Å"The doctor [reach] in her, opening the narrow tunnel to the uterus with a succession of slim, smooth bars of steel. He inserts a plastic tube and hooks it to a hose on the machine†¦.. [as] The machine rumbles low and loud in the small windowless room; the doctor moves the tubes back and forth with an efficient rhythm, and the long tail fills with blood that spurts and stumbles along into a jar† (748). This quote is effective to the story because it gives great detail of how painful the process is. Now for someone who is farther along in their pregnancy it is a little more brutal and the pain is more intense because the doctor â€Å"quickly grabs and crushes he fetus in several places, while the room is filled with a low clatter and snap of the forceps, the click of the tanaculum, and a pulling, sucking sound† (753). The effectiveness of this quote compares a five month pregnant uterus to one of which that is still in the first trimester of pregnancy, and allows you to see that the longer you wait the more painful the procedure is going to be. Although her writing was effective, i t was also ineffective at the same time because her writing is confusing and unclear. Her writing is unclear because her story is not structured well and needs to be structured a lot better; it jumps from subject to subject and then back to another subject leaving spaces in between, making it hard to understand at times. For instance, in one paragraph Tisdale talks about the process of abortion, then in another she talks about all the different types of women and teenage girls who have abortions done, and then on the next page in a different paragraph she comes back to talking about the process of abortion again. I mean she could have talked about the whole abortion process in one paragraph rather than split it up into different paragraphs with other paragraphs in between that have nothing to do with what she is talking about. Another reason her article is ineffective is because she arguing against abortion, but she works as a nurse who helps physicians during the abortion process. Tisdale claims, â€Å"In describing this work, I find it difficult to explain how much I enjoy it†¦.. It is a sweet brutality we practice here, a stark and loving dispassion† (748). The effectiveness this quote adds to the ineffectiveness of this paper is quite important. I mean she is arguing against abortion and then turning around and helping doctors with abortion procedures, she is completely arguing against her claim. Technically, she is not actually the one doing the abortion or the one having the abortion done, but she still helps with it, which is as bad as doing it. I mean, how can you sit here and argue against something like abortion about how wrong and bad it is, and then turn around and work for a company that takes part in abortion. For instance, take the Germans, they were not technically the ones who killed all the Jewish people during the holocaust, but it was Hitler that was in charge over everyone and he was actually the one doing the killing and burning because he had the power. So in saying that, the Germans, like Tisdale were guilty by association because even though neither she nor the soldiers were actually doing the killing, they both knew it was going on and chose not to do anything about. In her article, Tisdale argues that abortion is wrong and that â€Å"abortion is the narrowest edge between kindness and cruelty (753),† but if you think about what she is arguing it is not effective because she is against abortion but works for abortion. So in saying that, she is a cruel person that is willing to work for abortion because if she were really a kind person and were actually against abortion she would not work for a doctor’s office that does abortion or anything that has to do with it and enjoy it. She would work in another nursing field doing other things such as taking a patients temperature or getting their height and weight. Tisdale is a great writer from what I can tell, but for this paper, I would have to say it was just not her best. It was an ineffective argument and although her claim was good, she just could not support it because it is hard to support an argument when what you are arguing against is what you do for a living. Word Count 1,556 Works Cited Tisdale, Sallie. â€Å"We Do Abortions Here: A Nurse’s Story. † The Norton Reader: An Anthology of Nonfiction. 12th Edition. Ed. Linda H. Peterson and John C. Brereton. New York: Norton, 2008. 747-753. Print. rhetorical analysis Essay Example rhetorical analysis Essay Raising an Obedient Child Dont Spare the rod and spoil the child. We have all heard that before, as a child I heard it a lot. I was not the most well behaved child, so I got into plenty of trouble. My mom hated my temper tantrums. When I was little, she disciplined me, and now I am a well behaved young adult who knows right from wrong. Discipline is a way of teaching a child how to do what is right while growing up. There are multiple ways to discipline a child and make him/her behave. I feel that it is very important to begin to isciplining children when they are young so they know what is expected of them. it gives them a better sense of right and wrong while growing up once a child has reached his/her teenage years it is too late to begin the discipline process. If parents begin early, I believe that the most effective ways of disciplining children are timeout, taking away privileges, talking to the child, and, as a last resort, and spanking. Putting a child in timeout is effective if the parent is consistent with doing so. In the article Should You Give Your Child Timeouts, Phelan and Lynn state, when well xecuted, timeout will help teach the rule, and gives kids a break away from the inappropriate behavior and its triggers. I have witnessed consistent use of timeout with my nieces. With one, it takes several times for her to fgure out what she is doing wrong and that she is not supposed to continue doing so. My other niece learns after the first time out. Consistency is the key to a successful discipline method and discipline is the key to a successful child. If timeouts do not seem to be beneficial, other methods may be enforced. Privileges for a child are something that he/she earns when he/she behaves. If that is the case, why not take privileges away when the child behaves badly? I feel it teaches the same lesson that timeouts do, but it is a little more intense. As a child, when I got a new toy it was because I was being good and mom was proud, but if I began to act ugly or throw another one of my many tantrums, she would take my toy away. To make this method work my mom did not Just take any toy; she took my favorite toy, which made me behave so I could get it back. We will write a custom essay sample on rhetorical analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on rhetorical analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on rhetorical analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Once I realized that throwing tantrums made my mom take my favorite toy, I got the concept of good behavior. I admit it is a work in progress because some children do not get it the first time but it does get easier and better. Talking to a child is important as well as discipline. When a child misbehaves, sitting her down and talking to her is also another good method of teaching discipline. It is not like taking privileges or using timeout, but it can definitely work on children. In the article Talk it Out Works Better than Timeout, Mari-Jane Williams explains that youre missing an opportunity to sit down and say to your kids, how well did that work for you? She also mentions self-assessment and how it is more important to a childs mental and emotional health. In my opinion, as the aunt of three nephews and four nieces, talking to the misbehaving child can work and be a positive experience for both the parent and the child. It gives the parent a chance to tell the chil d that his actions are unacceptable and that he can no longer continue to behave in that manner. In my own experience, it is harder to use the alking method with my nephews, but a lot easier with my nieces. I feel it may be harder for a parent to talk to boys because they tend to be more stubborn than girls. Although boys react differently, parents should still talk to them as they talk to girls. Physical punishment, I feel, is Just as effective as any other discipline method. Spanking a child is more of a last resort when he/she is misbehaving. As I stated earlier in the essay, I threw temper tantrums when I did not get what I wanted and my mother took away privileges. That method was not always effective with me, and I nded up getting multiple spankings. In the article The Real Spanking Debate John Hoffman says that mfou could show me an impeccable study that proves beyond a shadow of doubt that a good and proper mild spanking doesnt harm kids. I completely agree with this statement because I experienced plenty of spankings and I am perfectly fine and well behaved with no discipline or anger problems. In conclusion, disciplining your child is very effective but, it depends on how consistent parents are with doing so. Timeouts, taking away privileges, talking, and pankings are all ways that I feel are effective ways of turning a disobedient child into a well behaved child who follows the rules. All of my experiences with disciplining and being disciplined have been effective, if not with all the methods, at least with one of them. When I become a parent I will use these same methods for my children. Hopefully as a mom I will not go through what my mom went through with me, maybe it will be easier. Work Cited Williams, Mari Jane. Talk-lt-out Works better than timeout. Washington Post 3 Oct. 2013. Opposing viewpoints in context. Web. 13 Nov. 2013 Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example Rhetorical Analysis Essay Dana Trimmer Rhetorical Analysis In Michael T. Klare’s â€Å"The Coming Era of Energy Disasters,† he seems to focus on the major risks off shore drilling the causes and the effect on the environment. The overall argument conveys that unless the oil industry and the consumer take an alternative route to dangerous oil drilling â€Å"more such calamities are destined to occur† (Klare 1). Klare is very vocal in criticizing of the BP executives concerning the Deepwater Horizon disaster. He proceeds to state the fact the chief executives of BP chose to call the accident and oversight â€Å"a fallacious, if not outright lie† (Klare 1). Klare’s article offers four scenarios that point to the escalating chances of major disasters if oil companies continue to pursue deep sea drilling. Klare contends that to continue to use the energy sources at the rate we currently use it will â€Å"guarantee the equivalent of two, three, four or more Gulf oil-spill-style disasters in our energy future† (Klare 1). In reference to Michael T. Klare’s background, he is a (PAWSS) Professor and affiliated with the Peace and World Security Studies and the School of Critical Social Inquiry. In addition, Klare is also the author of numerous books, and example, â€Å"Blood and Oil† (2004). Klare has written a number of articles in magazines such as Arms Control Today, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Current History, Foreign Affairs, Harper’s, The Nation, Scientific American and Technology Review (get Abstract). We will write a custom essay sample on Rhetorical Analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Rhetorical Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Rhetorical Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Most of the books and articles Klare has written in some way relate to the state of world affairs with most of them concerning the negative state of world affairs. Given Klare’s lifework and field of study, this creates creditability and a perfect environment with critical knowledge for the core reading Klare has chose to write about. Klare Trimmer 2 continues to argue that â€Å"drilling in unsafe areas and not pursuing alternative energy sources for the future, more such catastrophes’ are coming no matter how much the technology has advanced† (Klare 1). Setting the stage for his scenarios, Klare begins with the question â€Å"What will the next Deepwater Horizon disaster look like† (Klare 2)? Klare attempts to engage not only the public, those that have been somewhat exposed to the media, but the corporate and collegiate community as well. Klare having his articles posted on very liberal and technical news websites, such as Technology Review and The Nation, tend to reach more of an audience with higher levels of education and technical knowledge than the public in general. Klare’s writing style uses a sense of urgency, his strong use of words some even underlined to stress his point creates a sense of conviction for the topic he chose. Klare uses scenarios (real and fictional) to persuade his readers to believe there will be future energy disasters. He uses history to build his case on some of the scenarios he imposes on his readers. An example of this is in scenario number one. Klare describes the Hibernia platform off of Newfoundland. He goes to the extent of stating the cost, what the platform is made of and how many crewmembers are aboard the Hibernia. Klare chose to mention that the Hibernia platform owners insist the platform is capable to â€Å"withstand a blow from even the largest iceberg† (Klare 2). Klare seems to ignore or chooses not to explore the possibility that advanced technology and new regulations would make the Hibernia platform safer. He chose instead to discredit the owners and the extra safeguards used, Klare purposed to create a vision of impending doom or an oil catastrophe. Klare is trying to accomplish an awareness of supposed Trimmer 3 hortfalls in the oil industry that will ultimately lead to â€Å"future nightmares† (Klare 7). Klare transitions between real history and fictional, which makes the reading hard to believe it is creditable. An example of this is in scenario one. Klare writes first of the Hibernia owners then quickly moves into an imaginary scenario of â€Å"global warning advances and Green- land glaciers melting sending massive chunks of ice floating into the North Atlantic on a path past Hibernia† (Klare 2). While this is very plausible it has not appened to the Hibernia at the present time. Klare’s persuasive appeal tends to lean more on the readers emotions. His scenarios tend to try to spark anger by the reader. Klare uses scenario number two to raise the awareness that Nigerians are already impoverished and are being used by the government unfairly. Klare in one hand has his audience feeling poorly for the Nigerian workers and in the other suggests, do to â€Å"the pipeline vandalism, kidnappings and militant takeovers of oil facilities† (Klare 3) that America has reason to aid the military. Klare has his audience upset and emotionally unsure that simulates his imaginary scenario. Klare escalates the insurgence of the Niger Delta region, placing the Nigerian oil output down to a third of its capacity† (Klare 3). Klare angers his readers by having them believe they will be â€Å"paying $5 per gallon of gasoline in the United States and convincing them the economy is headed for another deep recession† (Klare 3). This is Klare’s strategy for all of his scenarios. It is interesting that throughout the article Klare is very anti-oil drilling and uses very harsh examples and words, but finishes his article on a softer note with a disclaimer. Klare reminds his intended audience that â€Å"while none of these specific calamities are guaranteed to happen something like them surely will † (Klare 7). He goes on to remind his readers to â€Å"take action to not depend on fossil fuel and speed up transition to a post carbon world† (Klare 7). After a short softer note, Klare reminds his audience to beware Trimmer 4 in addition, watch out for more calamities to come. After all, of the effort Klare used to expose the wrongs of the major oil companies, it would have been appropriate for Klare to offer some suggestions of alternative energy sources. Works Cited get Abstract compressed knowledge, n. d. Web. 07 Oct. 2011. http://getabstract. com/en/summary/economics-and-politics/rising-powers-shrinking-planet/10141/ Klare, Michael T. â€Å"The Coming Era of Energy Disasters†. The

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

To Be Or Not To Be... A Knight Essays - Cephalophores, Free Essays

To Be Or Not To Be... A Knight Essays - Cephalophores, Free Essays To Be Or Not To Be... A Knight To Be or Not To Be. A knight To be or not to be a Knight truly is the question presented through this story, which is a tale of Gawains trials and tribulations on his journey to the Green Chapel. First, before acknowledging Gawain as being or not being a knight, one must first know what a knight is. In reference to the Pentangle a knight or Gawain must be: first, he was faultless in his five senses, Nor found ever to fail in his five fingers, And all his fealty was fixed upon the five wounds That Christ got on the cross, as the creed tells; That all his force was founded on the five joys That the high Queen of heaven had in her child. The fifth of the five fives followed by the knight Were beneficence boundless and brotherly love And pure mind and manners, that none might impeach, And compassion most precious-these peerless five Were forged and made fast in him, foremost of men. (Ll. 640-655) This excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight demonstrates on what a knight should be when looked upon from the Pentangle mode of being a knight. What pertain to the Natural/Real Realm would be the five senses and five fingers. The five senses part is used to gain knowledge of the world and worldly wage. The five fingers are the deeds that are done. What pertain to the Religious, Spiritual, Christian Realm would be the faith in the five wounds of Christ would be Fealty and Force. Fealty is the faithfulness in the five wounds of Christ. Force or the force in battle is inspired by the five joys of Mary. What pertain to the Chivalric Realm are Beneficence, Brotherly Love & Truth, Pure Mind, Manners, and Pite. Beneficence pertains to the generosity that the knight bestows. Brotherly Love & Truth pertains to the fellowship and truth in which the knight bestows. Pure Mind pertains to the chastity that the knight shows through his encounters with women and their temptations. Manners per tains to the courtesy that the knight shows to the people that he comes upon. Pite, or piety, pertains to the compassion that the knight shows when he encounters different situations. (GP) The narrator defines Gawain as being: in good works, as gold unalloyed, devoid of all villainy, with virtues adorned in sight. (Ll. 633-635) This basically states that he was a model of a good guy. He kept himself out of trouble, we know this by reason of the narrator stating that Gawain was the Devoid of all villainy. This statement says that Gawain is lacking in any sort of evil. It seems to be that the Green Knight symbolically represents a villainous being that crashes in on a party to play a medieval Russian Roulette. In doing so causes an upheaval among the Knights of the Round Table. The Green Knight storms in and asks someone to chop his head off. At this part of the story it seems quite questionable as to his reasons for doing so. Gawain responds to the beheading game challenge in a humble, yet heroic sense. After the Green Knight barges into King Arthur's court and criticizes the Knights of the Round Table saying, Where is now your arrogance and your awesome deeds for all cower and quake(l. 87, 91) The Green Knight is now saying that the Knights of the Round Table are cowards. He is calling them out. The only one to accept the challenge is Arthur strictly to show that he is not a coward. Just as Arthur is about to decapitate the Green Knight Gawain speaks up and says, I beseech, before all here, that this melee may be mine. (l. 115-116) Here Gawain is speaking up and telling Arthur that if anyone will do this that it will be him. Gawain shows a great deal of courage in accepting this challenge for the reason that no one else, aside from Arthur, would except the challenge. Gawain finds hospitality and shelter at the castle of Bercilak, unbeknownst to Gawain, the Green Knight. Bercilak made an agreement that whatever I win in the woods I will give you at eve, and all you have earned you must

Friday, November 22, 2019

Oxidation and Reduction Reaction Example Problem

Oxidation and Reduction Reaction Example Problem In an oxidation-reduction or redox reaction, it is often confusing to identify which molecule is oxidized in the reaction and which molecule is reduced. This example problem shows how to correctly identify which atoms undergo oxidation or reduction and their corresponding redox agents. Problem For the reaction:2 AgCl(s) H2(g) → 2 H(aq) 2 Ag(s) 2 Cl-Identify the atoms that undergo oxidation or reduction and list the oxidizing and reducing agents. Solution The first step is to assign oxidation states to each atom in the reaction. AgCl:Ag has a 1 oxidation stateCl has a -1 oxidation stateH2 has an oxidation state of zeroH has a 1 oxidation stateAg has an oxidation state of zero.Cl- has a -1 oxidation state. The next step is to check what happened to each element in the reaction. Ag went from 1 in AgCl(s) to 0 in Ag(s). The silver atom gained an electron.H went from 0 in H2(g) to 1 in H(aq). The hydrogen atom lost an electron.Cl kept its oxidation state constant at -1 throughout the reaction. Oxidation involves the loss of electrons and reduction involves the gain of electrons.Silver gained an electron. This means the silver was reduced. Its oxidation state was reduced by one. To identify the reduction agent, we must identify the source of the electron. The electron was supplied by either the chlorine atom or the hydrogen gas. Chlorines oxidation state was unchanged throughout the reaction and hydrogen lost an electron. The electron came from the H2 gas, making it the reduction agent. Hydrogen lost an electron. This means the hydrogen gas was oxidized. Its oxidation state was increased by one.The oxidation agent is found by finding where the electron went in the reaction. Weve already seen how hydrogen gave an electron to silver, so the oxidation agent is the silver chloride. Answer For this reaction, hydrogen gas was oxidized with the oxidizing agent being silver chloride. Silver was reduced with the reducing agent being H2 gas.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Social movements Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Social movements - Essay Example Marxism is defined by Wikipedia as the philosophical, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a known proponent of a social revolution to achieve full transformation of the state from capitalism to socialism. Its aim is to achieve equal distribution of wealth to all members of the society. This is totally opposite to the theory of capitalism that is often the system observed in western countries. Here, the labor force is treated as the major factor in the production of wealth rather than capital which is held only by a few. Existentialism on the other hand is a philosophical movement that gives meaning to human's existence in this world and seeks to value one's existence. Here, the meaning of life is given paramount consideration over other aspects such as politics, economy and sciences. It is opposed to the western's ideology on rationalism. Its core idea is that reality is not the consciousness but "being in this world." The first three principles are somehow related to each other in the sense that nationalism is the moving force behind the pursuit to industrialization and Marxism. Thus, it is nationalism that justifies the continued attempts to fully industrialize the economy and to distribute the wealth of the nation.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Fashion and Consumer Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Fashion and Consumer Culture - Essay Example The essay "Fashion and Consumer Culture" concerns the consumerism and fashion. Factors include religion, beliefs, climate, gender, and economic and cultural situation, among others. Though fashion may change as dictated by society, clothes are more than just about warmth and protection. In fact, clothes have become a representation of particular cultures that create them. Clothes are considered consumer goods. But then again, more than being consumer goods, it defines the cultural class that wears them. It is one of those consumer goods that are being used as tools for social mobility as stated in the ‘Conspicuous Consumption’ theory by 19th Century economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen. In his book ‘The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions, he says that luxury goods are tools to display economic power, and that such display of discretionary economic power is a means of attaining or maintaining a particular social sta tus. Moreover, as an elaboration, these consumer goods have become tools to provoke envy from other people. Ultimately, consumer goods, and fashion is one of them, is a means of displaying a buyer’s superior socio-economic status. In the article ‘Consumption and the Consumer Society’, it says that the average United States resident consumes 275 lbs. of meat, uses 635 lbs. of paper and uses energy equivalent to 7.8 metrics tons of oil. Forty-five years ago consumption was about half of current statistics. In the U.S. there are 2 persons.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Critical evaluation - John Steinbeck-Of Mice and Men and Robert Ludlum-The Bourne Identity Essay Example for Free

Critical evaluation John Steinbeck-Of Mice and Men and Robert Ludlum-The Bourne Identity Essay Through the history of man; mathematicians, philosophers, teachers, and scientists have molded and shaped our world. These men and women, young and old, are responsible for the continually growing knowledge in todays youth. Upon studying the most influential educators, it was proven that writers and authors sustain every element of the society we live; love, passion, romance, adventure, drama, science fiction, and non-fiction. All of these categories exist for only one purpose, to entertain the minds who absorb the material. Entertaining authors make an exceptional story and none other than Robert Ludlum and John Steinbeck accomplish this feat better. In order to further understand these authors thirst to provide edge-of-the-seat entertainment, their past and present must be explored. Although these authors lived in two diverse locations, their driving desire for knowledge appears the same. Ludlum and Steinbeck attended college after high school, majoring in English. After graduating from Salinas High School in 1919, Steinbeck attended Stanford University from 1920-1925. Two years after Steinbeck left to pursue his writing career in New York, Robert Ludlum was born on May 25, 1927. Ludlum was educated privately and at the Chesire Academy, Connecticut. After appearing is school theatricals, he acted in the comedy Junior Miss on Broadway at the age of sixteen. His degree includes: B.A., Wesleyan University, Middletown, 1951. Having never graduated from Stanford University, Steinbecks life for the most part was low profile even after the publishing of his first books, Cup of Gold (1929), The Pastures of Heaven and To a God Unknown, which were all inadequately acknowledged by the literary world. Tortilla Flat (1935) was the noticeable turning point in Steinbecks literary career receiving the California Commonwealth Clubs Gold Medal for best novel. Steinbeck continued writing, and The Grapes of Wrath (1939) won him the Pulitzer Prize. The Nobel Prize was awarded to John Steinbeck for Literature in 1962 for his realistic as well as imaginative writings, distinguished by a sympathetic humor and a keen social perception. 1 Twenty-nine Academy Award nominations and four Academy Awards were given for revision of John Steinbecks stories. Literature lost one of its most accomplished and distinguished writers on December 20, 1968, in New York City; John Steinbeck died at the age of 66. However, on a more positive note, New York City was also the place where literature bore Robert Ludlum. Ludlum can be described as a modern day author. He is a well-known author writing twenty-one novels and selling over 290 million books in thirty-two different languages. Ludlum started his literary career relatively late because he was working in 1. Mobel Lectures; literature 1901-4967 the theatre as an actor and producer. One of the primary reasons Ludlum is such a suspenseful writer is due to the fact that he was born in an age where movies grabbed the attention of the public eye. In the 1950s, Ludlum worked as a stage and television actor. After producing 300 stage productions for New York and regional theatre, Ludlum wrote his first novel, The Scarlatti Inheritance (1971). Few writers are able to grasp global attention using unbelievable plots that spin into engrossing tales. John Steinbeck and Robert Ludlum are comparable writers. These two authors are very accomplished and their novels reputations speak for themselves. John Steinbecks Of Mice and Men and Robert Ludlums The Bourne Identity are the focus of this evaluation. Their works signify literary techniques that contribute to theme. The central theme in Of Mice and Men written by John Steinbeck: human fates are constantly controlled by outside forces. The techniques he uses for example: repetition and symbolism are extremely successful in getting across his very cynical views on this theme. Similar techniques are used in Robert Ludlums The Bourne Identity. Uniquely writing; many of Ludlums techniques are present in his writing, but the reader is too engrossed in the story to recognize them. However, Ludlum writes meticulously in his story plots. When evaluated, the reader can distinguish that repetition and symbolism are also used as literary techniques that contribute to theme. Steinbeck and Ludlum use the technique of repetition to effectively build up the climax of the tragedy. In Of Mice and Men, Lennie unintentionally killed his mouse when petting it. This situation repeats itself further in the novel when Slim gives Lennie a puppy. When playing with the animal, Lennie gave the puppy a disciplining thump for biting him and he killed it. An incident, such as this, will be the downfall of George and Lennie. Near the end of the novel, Lennie strokes Curleys wifes hair. He holds too tightly and she gets frightened. Lennie was in a panic. 2 Climaxing, he attempts to quiet her, Dont you go yellin, he said, and he shook her, and her body flopped like a fish. And then she was still, for Lennie had broken her neck. 2 The repetition of unintentional death foreshadows a negative outcome for Lennie, his sealed fate. This action brought upon his own murder by George who shot him in the back of the head out of mercy for everything else that was weak and helpless. In this act of violence, George would not be considered a murderer, in fact, quite the opposite. George, instead, would be deemed a savor because he did Lennie a favor. 2. Steinbeck; 91 The Bourne Identity uses repetition in a similar fashion. The central character Jason Bourne faces memory loss, crippling him from discovering his true identity. His instincts and intelligence help guide him. The quote: You are not helpless. You will find your way. 3 is repeated on several occasions, which foreshadows success on Jasons behalf. Jasons rhetorical behavior when faced with stressful and difficult situations ends in same violent manner. Bourne grabbed the Frenchman in front of him now, his left arm around the mans throat, his right hand tearing at the mans left ear. 4 Without thinking, Jason reacts to the situation with poise and precision. Jasons rhetorical skills evoke his memory enough to enable him to think and act on his own to avoid death or capture. Whenever you observe a stress-and you have the time-do your damndest to project into it. Associate as freely as you can; let words and images fill your mind. In them you may find clues. 5 This quote is nearly repeated again, Whenever youre in a stress situation-and theres time, of course-do exactly as you would when you project yourself into one youre observing. Let your mind fall free, let whatever thoughts and images that surface come cleanly. Try not to exercise any mental discipline. Be a sponge; concentrate on everything and nothing. Specifics may come to you, certain repressed conduits electricity prodded into functioning. 6 except there is added tactics, which suggests that Jason is constantly learning. Through repetition Jason persistently advances his skills to obtain his past by varying his appearance, Change your hairyou change your face. 7 Soon after his skills advanced, Jason learned that his real name is David Webb who turns out as a young Far East scholar. Webb received a new identity from the Central intelligence (CIA) as Jason Bourne, a black ops agent. His primary objective was to kill Carlos, another far more advanced assassin, but was betrayed. As the plot twists, the CIA has given Jason quite a few hoops to jump through for his own survival. The climax builds to this particular moment in the novel, when Jason reverses the situation and uses the training the CIA gave him to kill the assassin Carlos. The climax appears to have truth because not only has Jason stopped being on the defensive side of this live or die game, but also his proficient skills have drawn him to his past profession to kill or be killed; fate. The interfering CIA has lost control of Bourne; however he is drawn back to his past line of work, which could result in death, so he ultimately loses. It could be said that Jason Bourne was born to be a professional assassin under anyones control. 3. Ludlum; 39, 43, 83 4. Ludlum; 64 5. Ludlum; 50 6. Ludlum; 82 7. Ludlum; 116, 161 Another technique that demonstrates John Steinbecks view of fate is the symbolism. Near the end of the novel, A watersnake glided smoothly up the pool, twisting its periscope head from side to side, and it swam the length of the pool and came to the legs of a motionless heron that stood in the shallows. A silent head and beak lanced down and plucked it out by the head, and the beak swallowed the little snake while its tail waved frantically. 8 The heron, stationary and patient, symbolizes fate, while the watersnake, vulnerable and unaware, its victim. The watersnake would most likely symbolize George. Not only does the Heron symbolize fate, it also symbolizes Lennie the burden to their dream. Steinbeck illustrates his view on fate once more by word choice. Words like lanced, plucked, and waiting suggest that Steinbeck believes that fate strikes assertively and specifically. Similarly, Robert Ludlum uses symbolism to project the same idea. Symbolism appears not as evident as repetition; however, present nonetheless. The CIA seems to be the entity or government corporation that symbolizes fate. Every element in the novel can be drawn back to something that the CIA has caused. Ludlum and Steinbeck believe fate to be all the same. In Ludlums case, the CIAs intricate plans and organized operations parallel Steinbecks idea that fate acts in the same manner, assertively and specifically. Of Mice and Men and The Bourne Identity are literally written in identical fashions. Steinbeck and Ludlum use character driven dialogue to tell the story. The point-of-views transpose between first person (the main characters) and third person (the narrator). The first person prospective uniquely projects to the reader each of the character thoughts and actions. The first person prospective gives a clear understanding of what exactly will happen, without all of the excess narration. However, the narration does an excellent job in describing the setting among other elements, such as flow between events. The events or chapters are present in both novels. Ludlum uses three books within his novel along with thirty five chapters because The Bourne Identity is far longer than the six chapters Of Mice and Men. This technique is apparent for the sole purpose of changing locations in the story with ease; in The Bourne Identity Jason and his companion travel to different countries, and in Of Mice and Men the only change of location appears within the town and ranch. These two books were written very similarly. Both switched between first and third person depending on what the best way to tell the story was. By changing point of views, Ludlum and Steinbeck were able to develop their themes more thoroughly. The technique of changing perspectives allowed the reader to identify with the main characters, but at the same time, know vital information that would be needed to understand the story. 8. Steinbeck; 99 Robert Ludlum and John Steinbeck are exceptional authors. There novels: The Bourne Identity and Of Mice and Men, respectively, have Robert Lattas praise. Woohoo, right? There are more positive, than negative, statements to be discussed. Particularly, Ludlums story is far more intriguing than Steinbecks. The plot and characters all are attention getters. The idea that a man with no memory has instincts that are above any normal man, and has answers to every question, except his name, is fascinating. The only downfall to Ludlums work appears to be the length of his novel, five hundred some odd pages, that turns out to be a lot of reading time. Steinbecks novel length; however, fits the taste well, only one hundred some pages. The olden story in Steinbecks novel, gets negative feedback because its entire plot stimulated nothing more than closing eye lids. Praising the literary device of repetition, this gave some indication that what was being read over again would prove useful in assembling a critical evaluation essay. The repetition also forces the information into your brain, meaning it holds significance. Moreover, the theme portrayed among these two novels had some relevance with our current lives, which also served another purpose to reading them Overall, the novels ended up balancing one another. A positive recommendation can be made for both these novels because something can be learned. WORKS CITED Lectures, Mobel. The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962. [online] http://www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/1962/press.html Ludlum, Robert. The Bourne Identity. New York: Richard Marek, 1975 Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men. New York: Penguin Books, 1978

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Essay --

Morality is the single most controversial and mind-boggling train of thought currently known to human-kind, and no particular individual more so exemplifies this conflict (or better summarizes my own personal beliefs) than Niccolà ² Machiavelli. Few writers in the whole of the human history have inspired the kind of personal hatred that Machiavelli has in the last 500 years, and few works have been as vilified, (or as popular) as The Prince. Machiavelli has been slandered and portrayed as a defender of tyrannical government, an atheistic promoter of immorality, and a manipulator whose interests were all self-serving. Today, the Oxford dictionary still characterizes "Machiavellian" as "of, like, or characterized by the political principles and methods of expediency, craftiness, and duplicity set forth in Machiavelli's book, The Prince; crafty, deceitful, and so on." Folk legend holds that "Old Nick," a slang term for the Devil, is derived from Machiavelli's first name, Niccolà ². Wi th that context kept in mind, isn’t morality founded on a specific set of core ideas? Isn’t it always defined by the acknowledgement of a central moral allegiance dominating all the others? From individualism to families, from tribalism to racism, from nationalism to religious fundamentalism or the allegiance to a totalitarian party what we see is the drawing of different â€Å"circles† centered on a basic, paramount moral norm. And Machiavelli is definitely not isolated in positing the interest of the nation as the foundation of his moral thinking. At the beginning of the 21st century we are still living within that same ideal nationalist realism. What could be more â€Å"Machiavellian† than the saying â€Å"My nation right or wrong†, which seems to be a still very popul... ...day? How can we maintain that, in an era when, from migrations to terrorism to the Tsunami to Chernobyl to aviary flu to AIDS, we are obliged to cope with challenges that are global, â€Å"group ethics† (be it tribal, religious or nationalistic) matches our reality, our needs, our stage of human development? We are definitely not on the eve of a global state, and yet we are no longer able to confine our economic, political, cultural but also moral scope within the limits of the borders of our national republic. There is no easy solution to our moral quandrums (another much discussed idea in the Discourses. Machiavelli’s daring, his awareness of unadorned reality, his honesty and anti-hypocrisy, his republican commitment can help us, if we are able to grasp the essence of his politics and his ethics, also in this very complex and problematic stage of human development.